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What is diabetes ?

Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Hyperglycaemia, or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body’s systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels.

In 2014, 8.5% of adults aged 18 years and older had diabetes. In 2015, diabetes was the direct cause of 1.6 million deaths.  Source the World Health Organisation.

 

What causes diabetes ?

Type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent, or adult-onset) results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin. Type 2 diabetes comprises the majority of people with diabetes around the world, and is largely the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity.

 

How to monitor  ?

There are several devises available, one of them is the “egm1000 non invasive glucose monitor”.

the egm1000 is produced by Evia Medical Technologies Ltd, United Kingdom.  www.egm1000.com

the egm1000 is distributed in Nigeria by Kainico.  reception@diabetesnigeria.com

egm1000™ gives you freedom from finger-pricking to help you manage your diabetes.

egm1000™ is battery-operated and includes a Main Unit (MU), which contains display and control features, as well as transmitter, receiver and processor, and an Ear Clip (EC), which is clipped to the earlobe and contains sensors and calibration electronics.

The device is small, light and easy to use. The Main Unit can be shared by up to three users, although each user requires his/her own (individually calibrated) EC. The device includes a USB port for data downloading (enables off-line analysis), as well as battery recharging.

The egm1000

Measures your tissue glucose (sugar level /diabetes) in three ways

Each method measures one skin tissue parameter.

Three independent readings are combined to give a reading with above 95 % accuracy.

 

Ultrasound

An ultrasonic wave travels from a transmitter, placed on one side of the earlobe, through the earlobe tissue and received at the other side. The sound velocity depends linearly on the glucose concentration.

Electromagnetic

The EGM1000 ear-clip utilizes a dielectric material between the two capacitor plates.  Small electric voltage application between the two plates stimulates the earlobe tissue, allowing for impedance assessment.  Impedance is the effective resistance of an electric circuit to alternating current.  The tissue impedance depends on the glucose concentration.

Thermal

A small amount of controlled energy is applied to the earlobe using a heat source. The temperature developed on the earlobe as a result of the heating depends on the level of glucose.

The egm1000

Measures your diabetes in three ways

Each technology measures different tissue parameters that are affected by the same change in glucose concentration, but is confined by the impact of interfering factors, due to lack of specificity. Therefore, a simultaneous evaluation of the above mentioned physiological changes through measurement of different sets of tissue perturbations, induced by changes in glucose concentration, increases the validity of the end result. The three independent readings are combined together by a proprietary algorithm, which calculates their weighted average.

 

Ultrasound

(phase shift as a function of speed of sound change within the tissue) – An ultrasonic wave travels from a transmitter, placed on one side of the earlobe, through the earlobe tissue and received at the other side. Zips et al [1] showed that the sound velocity depends linearly on the glucose concentration in a water-glucose solution. They also described sound velocity dependency on temperature. Moreover, the temperature dependence is more significant than that of the glucose concentration. One should note that these dependencies are not opposite to each other, meaning in the hyperglycemic range, the temperature increases as well as the concentration and thus the velocity of sound is expected to increase significantly. Furthermore, in live tissues, the influence of glucose concentration on the velocity of sound is more profound than the demonstration in Zips and associates’ study. This is since glucose-induced water transport affects tissue density as well as compressibility and they also affect the sound velocity [2].

Electromagnetic

(conductivity of the tissue) – The device has two parallel foils, which act like capacitor’s plates. Thus the earlobe utilizes as a dielectric material between the two capacitor plates. Voltage application between the two plates stimulates the earlobe tissue, current measurement allows for impedance assessment. This method is plausible as a glucose assessment technique since plasma glucose induces ion shift across the cellular membrane in red blood cells and as a result changes membrane potential [3]. Furthermore, Hayashi et al [4] demonstrated that variations of the metabolically active enantiomer d-glucose affect the permittivity and conductivity of the cellular membranes. Tissue impedance is changed due to changes in blood glucose concentration and is therefore monitored [5].

Thermal

(heat capacity of the tissue) – A known (controlled) amount of energy is applied to the earlobe using a heat source for a predetermined period of time. The temperature developed on the earlobe as a result of the heating is glucose dependent, according to the bio-heat transfer equation, which describes the thermal properties changes of a living tissue [6].

FAQ

Frequently asked questions

Is it more or less accurate than finger pricking ?

In a laboratory setting the finger pricking devises available in the market today are as accurate as the egm1000. However in the day-to-day situation of most users, surveys show that the egm1000 is far more accurate.

Why does the egm1000 have to be calibrated ?

Because the measurements depend on the physiology of each person.

What is the price ?

The egm1000 certified medical device cost USD 2300. This is the same price in most countries. The egm1000 is less expensive than finger pricking after 15 months if you measure 5 times per day, and after 2 years if you measure 2-3 times per day.

We bought our egm1000 in another country, can you calibrate it ?

Yes ofcourse, we would be happy to.

What is the difference between the readings of tissue glucose compared to blood glucose ?

Usually 15-20 minutes from the levels seen in blood glucose (finger pricking), you should see the comparable level in tissue glucose (egm1000).

Do you deliver and calibrate ?

Yes we deliver and calibrate in Lagos and in Abuja.

I have diabetes type 2

The egm1000 was made for you

I have diabetes type 1

The egm1000 is not for you unfortunately. Because Diabetes type 1 is a completely different disease compared to type 2.

Do you have other products ?

For the time being, we only have the egm1000. But if you have type 2 diabetes, this is the most important product.

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